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Farming » Overview


Farmer/ Farm Manager

Farmers/farm managers are responsible for the planning and day-to-day management of farms. Farmers own the land they farm, while farm managers manage farms for farm owners. Farmers usually specialise in a certain area:

  • Beef cattle: Beef cattle farmers breed, raise and care for beef cattle for meat and breeding stock.
  • Poultry: Poultry farmers manage farms that raise chickens or other poultry to produce meat, and/or keep hens to produce table eggs (for eating) or fertile eggs (for hatching).
  • Pigs: pigs farmers manage and oversee the day-to-day running of pig farms, which breed and raise pigs for the production of meat and breeding stock.
  • Deer: Deer farmers breed, raise and care for deer for meat, velvet, hides and breeding stock.
  • Sheep: Sheep farmers breed, raise and care for sheep for wool, meat and breeding stock.
  • Horse breeding: Horse breeders breed, raise and care for horses for competition, dressage, eventing, show jumping, riding for pleasure and working.


Dairy Farmer

Dairy farmers feed, care for, and milk herds of cows on farms. They aim to get the cows to produce as much high quality milk as possible, cost-effectively. Most dairy farmers milk cows twice a day – once in the morning and again in the afternoon. Some dairy farmers milk seasonally and others milk all year round.


Crop Farmer

Crop Farmers assist on or manage farms that grow crops.


Farm Assistant

Farm assistants help farmers with a variety of tasks including breeding, razing and caring for livestock, and other farming activities. Farm workers may progress into farm management positions, or become self-employed farmers. Others may become farm consultants, sell agricultural products, or work in other areas of the agriculture industry. Like Farmers or Farm Managers they can also specialise in a particular area.


Farm Consultant

Farm consultants advise and educate farmers and growers on how to improve the quality and yield of crops and livestock. They also help develop financial and business plans to increase profitability and growth. Farm Consultants who work for companies may progress to supervisory or management roles, or start their own consultancy businesses. Some consultants may become farmers, farm managers or orchardists. Most consultants specialise in one area of farming such as dairy, sheep or beef farming, fruit or vegetable crop, irrigation, or financial management.



Fencers construct and repair fences, walls and gates. Fencers can progress to supervisory roles or become self-employed fencing contractors. Fencers usually specialise in either farm fencing (rural), or commercial and residential (urban) fencing, although some do both.



Shearers cut the wool from sheep with electric clippers (hand-pieces) or manual clippers (blades). Shearers can become shearing contractors who are employed by farmers to shear and organise the shearing gang. Fast shearers can earn a lot of money and often do the job as a stepping stone to buying a farm or a business. Others may progress to become competition shearers.


Wool Handler

Wool handlers pick up and sort the wool in a shearing shed.


Wool Classer

Wool classers sort wool into categories according to breed, age, colour, length and micron (fibre thickness), ensure contamination is removed from wool, and complete identification and documentation prior to sale.


Wool Presser

Wool pressers press wool into bales using their legs and feet and a wool-pressing machine.


Shearing Contractor

Shearing contractors hire and organise shearing gangs to shear sheep for farmers. Gangs are made up of wool handers, wool pressers, shearers, and sometimes cooks and drivers.